#### General overview

The following list shows all the available boundary conditions, applicability and input parameters. Parameters denoted with * are required, the others are optional entries. Click on the name of the boundary condition for more information.

Boundary type | Boundary condition | Applicable to | Input parameters | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Fluid | Solid | Fluid | Solid | ||

Inlet | fixedFlowRateInlet | \(T\)*, (\(U\),\(\dot{Q}\) or \(\dot{m}\))*, \(\omega\) | |||

pressureInlet | \(T\)*, \(p\)* | ||||

pumpInlet | \(T\)*, Performance curve* | ||||

fanInlet | \(T\)*, Performance curve* | ||||

Outlet | pressureOutlet | \(p\) | |||

fanOutlet | Performance curve* | ||||

pumpOutlet | Performance curve* | ||||

minFlowRateOutlet | (\(U\), \(\dot{Q}\) or \(\dot{m}\))* | ||||

Wall | fixedTemperatureWall | \(T\)* | \(T\)* | ||

heatedWall | \(Q\)*, \(R_{d}\), \(R_{k}\) | \(Q\)* | |||

externalWall | \(h\)*, \(T_{a}\)*, \(R_{d}\), \(R_{k}\), \(\varepsilon_{eternal}\) | \(h\)*, \(T_{a}\)*, \(R_{d}\), \(R_{k}\), \(\varepsilon_{eternal}\) | |||

insulatedWall | \(R_{l}\)* | ||||

Slip |

#### FixedFlowRateInlet

Name | fixedFlowRateInlet |

Type | Inlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | The temperature \(T\) in \([K]\) at the patch should be specified, as well as either the velocity \(U\) in \([m/s]\), the mass flow rate \(\dot{m}\) in \([kg/s]\) or the volumetric flow rate \(\dot{Q}\) in \([m^{3}/s]\), depending on the chosen option. Also a rotational velocity \(\omega\) in \([rad/s]\) can be set. |

With this boundary condition, a flow entering the domain at a certain velocity is specified. The flow can be described by:

- Fixed value velocity: the magnitude of the inlet velocity at the patch is specified.
- Mass flow rate: an average mass flow rate is specified, which is translated to a velocity at the patch with the fluid density by the software.
- Volumetric flow rate: the average volumetric flow rate at the patch is specified. The inlet velocity is then automatically calculated by the software.

A fixedFlowRateInlet boundary condition is typically used in combination with a pressureOutlet boundary condition.

#### PressureInlet

Name | pressureInlet |

Type | Inlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | The temperature \(T\) in \([K]\) and pressure \(p\) in \([Pa]\) at the patch should be specified. |

This boundary condition defines an inflow condition based on the inputted total pressure at the boundary. A pressureInlet condition is typically used in combination with a pressureOulet boundary condition.

The total pressure (\(P_{tot}\)) in Pa relates to the static pressure (\(P_{stat}\)) in Pa through the following relation: \[P_{tot}=P_{stat}+\frac{1}{2}\rho V^2=P_{stat}+\frac{1}{2}\rho\frac{\dot{Q}^2}{A^2}\] Where:

- \(\rho\) represents the density of the fluid in \(\frac{kg}{m^3}\)
- \(V\) represents the velocity of the fluid in \(\frac{m}{s}\)
- \(\dot{Q}\) represents the volumetric flow rate of the fluid in \(\frac{m^3}{s}\)
- \(A\) represents the area of the boundary patch in \(m^2\)

#### PumpInlet

Name | pumpInlet |

Type | Inlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | The temperature \(T\) in \([K]\) at the patch should be specified, as well as the performance curve of the pump. |

This boundary condition sets the total pressure at the patch based on the pressure drop as a function of the volumetric flow rate as specified in the performance curve of the pump. This boundary condition is typically used in combination with a pressureOutlet boundary condition at the outlet.

The total pressure (\(P_{tot}\)) in Pa relates to the static pressure (\(P_{stat}\)) in Pa through the following relation: \[P_{tot}=P_{stat}+\frac{1}{2}\rho V^2=P_{stat}+\frac{1}{2}\rho\frac{\dot{Q}^2}{A^2}\] Where:

- \(\rho\) represents the density of the fluid in \(\frac{kg}{m^3}\)
- \(V\) represents the velocity of the fluid in \(\frac{m}{s}\)
- \(\dot{Q}\) represents the volumetric flow rate of the fluid in \(\frac{m^3}{s}\)
- \(A\) represents the area of the boundary patch in \(m^2\)

#### FanInlet

Name | fanInlet |

Type | Inlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | The temperature \(T\) in \([K]\) at the patch should be specified, as well as the performance curve of the fan. |

This boundary condition can be used to set a total pressure inlet condition for a fan. The total pressure at the patch is set based on the pressure drop which is specified in the performance curve of the fan as a function of the volumetric flow rate. This boundary condition is typically used in combination with a pressureOutlet boundary condition at the outlet.

The total pressure (\(P_{tot}\)) in Pa relates to the static pressure (\(P_{stat}\)) in Pa through the following relation: \[P_{tot}=P_{stat}+\frac{1}{2}\rho V^2=P_{stat}+\frac{1}{2}\rho\frac{\dot{Q}^2}{A^2}\] Where:

- \(\rho\) represents the density of the fluid in \(\frac{kg}{m^3}\)
- \(V\) represents the velocity of the fluid in \(\frac{m}{s}\)
- \(\dot{Q}\) represents the volumetric flow rate of the fluid in \(\frac{m^3}{s}\)
- \(A\) represents the area of the boundary patch in \(m^2\)

#### PressureOutlet

Name | pressureOutlet |

Type | Outlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | Optionally, a pressure at the patch can be specified in \([Pa]\). If no pressure is specified, it is set to 0 \(Pa\). This boundary patch fixes the static pressure at that boundary. |

This boundary condition defines an outflow condition based on the specified static pressure at the boundary. A pressureOutlet boundary condition is typically used in combination with a fixedFlowRateInlet, a fanInlet or a pumpInlet.

#### FanOutlet

Name | fanOutlet |

Type | Outlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | The performance curve of the fan should be specified. |

This boundary condition sets the total pressure at the patch based on the pressure drop as a function of the volumetric flow rate as specified in the performance curve of the fan. A fanOutlet condition is typically used in combination with a pressureInlet condition at the inlet.

#### PumpOutlet

Name | pumpOutlet |

Type | Outlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | The performance curve of the pump should be specified. |

This boundary condition sets the total pressure at the patch based on the pressure drop as a function of the volumetric flow rate as specified in the performance curve of the pump. A pumpOutlet condition is typically used in combination with a pressureInlet condition at the inlet.

#### minFlowRateOutlet

Name | minFlowRateOutlet |

Type | Outlet |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | A minFlowRateOutlet only requires one input parameter: either the velocity \(U\) in \([m/s]\), the mass flow rate \(\dot{m}\) in \([kg/s]\) or the volumetric flow rate \(\dot{Q}\) in \([m^{3}/s]\) at the patch. |

This boundary condition ensures that a specified minimum flow rate is achieved through the outlet. This minimum flow rate can be described by:

- Fixed value velocity: the magnitude of the minimum outlet velocity at the patch is specified.
- Mass flow rate: the minimum average mass flow rate at the patch is specified. The minimum outlet velocity is then automatically calculated by the software.
- Volumetric flow rate: the minimum average volumetric flow rate at the patch is specified. The minimum outlet velocity is then automatically calculated by the software.

A minimumFlowRateOutlet boundary condition is typically used in combination with a pressureInlet boundary condition.

#### FixedTemperatureWall

Name | fixedTemperatureWall | |

Type | Wall | |

Applicable to | Fluids and solids | |

Input parameters | Fluid | The temperature \(T\) in \([K]\) at the patch should be specified. |

Solid | The temperature \(T\) in \([K]\) at the patch should be specified. |

With the fixedTemperatureWall, a constant temperature value can be assigned to the patch. This is useful if you want to model a constant temperature heat source or sink.

#### HeatedWall

Name | heatedWall | |

Type | Wall | |

Applicable to | Fluids and solids | |

Input parameters | Fluid | The heating power \(Q\) in \([W]\) should be specified.
Optionally, a thermal resistance can be applied by providing the thickness of the thermal resistance layer \(R_{d}\) in \([m]\) and the conductivity \(R_{k}\) of the resistance layer in \([W/(mK)]\). |

Solid | The heating power \(Q\) in \([W]\) should be specified. |

With the heatedWall, a constant heating power value can be assigned to the patch. This is useful if you want to model a heat source or sink with a constant heat flux, specified as the total power.

#### ExternalWall

Name | externalWall | |

Type | Wall | |

Applicable to | Fluids and solids | |

Input parameters | Fluid | The heat transfer coefficient \(h\) in \([W/(m^{2}K)]\) and the temperature of the environment \(T_{a}\) in \([K]\) should be specified.
Optionally, a thermal resistance layer can be defined by setting the thickness of the layer \(R_{d}\) in \([m]\) and the conductivity \(R_{k}\) of the thermal resistance layer in \([W/(mK)]\). Optionally, an external emissivity \(\varepsilon_{external}\) in \([-]\) can be set. |

Solid | The heat transfer coefficient \(h\) in \([W/(m^{2}K)]\) and the temperature of the environment \(T_{a}\) in \([K]\) should be specified.
Optionally, a thermal resistance layer can be defined by setting the thickness of the layer \(R_{d}\) in \([m]\) and the conductivity \(R_{k}\) of the thermal resistance layer in \([W/(mK)]\). Optionally, an external emissivity \(\varepsilon_{external}\) in \([-]\) can be set. |

With this boundary condition, heat losses to or gains from the environment can be modelled. Optional thin thermal resistance layers can be specified through the thicknesses and the conductivity of the layers.

#### InsulatedWall

Name | insulatedWall | |

Type | Wall | |

Applicable to | Fluids and solids | |

Input parameters | Fluid | The roughness length \(R_{l}\) in \([m]\) should be specified. |

Solid | / |

As the name suggests, this boundary condition represents an adiabatic wall. These boundaries do not thermally interact with the rest of the case setup.

#### slip

Name | slip |

Type | Wall |

Applicable to | Fluids |

Input parameters | / |

This boundary condition ensures that there can be no flow perpendicular to the boundary itself, but there can be flow (with a non-zero velocity) parallel to or along this boundary patch.